A French court Thursday became the first in Europe to impose criminal penalties on Uber, the US car-sharing firm.
The court fined the company €400,000 for running an illegal transport service using unprofessional drivers. It fined one of its US executives €30,000 and a French executive €20,000.
The Uber POP service connected clients via a smartphone app with non-professional drivers using their own cars. Uber France suspended the service last year after the government banned it under pressure from licensed taxi drivers.
Uber said it would appeal the court ruling.
The company has become embroiled in many legal battles as it has expanded to 60 countries since its founding in 2009.
In Frankfurt, a court upheld Germany's ban on Uber POP on Thursday, rejecting the company's appeal against a ruling by a lower court which set stiff fines for any violations of local transport laws.
Last week, the European Commission urged states to welcome Uber-type firms, saying a ban should be "a measure of last resort."
Uber POP has also been declared illegal by courts in Italy and Spain, while appeals are pending in Belgium and the Netherlands.